Low birthweight in newborns
What causes low birthweight?
The primary cause is premature birth, being born before 37 weeks gestation; a baby born early has less time in the mother's uterus to grow and gain weight, and much of a fetus's weight is gained during the latter part of the mother's pregnancy.
Another cause of low birthweight is intrauterine growth restriction. This occurs when a baby does not grow well in utero because of problems with the placenta, the mother's health or birth defects. Babies with Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) may be born early or full-term; premature babies with IUGR may be very small and physically immature, and full-term babies with IUGR may be physically mature but weak.
Which babies are affected by low birthweight?
Any baby born prematurely is more likely to be small. However, there are other factors that can also contribute to the risk of low birthweight. These include:
- Race - African-American babies are twice as likely as Caucasian babies to have low birthweight.
- Mother's age - Teen mothers (especially those younger than 15) have a much higher risk of having a baby with low birthweight.
- Multiple birth - Multiple birth babies are at increased risk of low birthweight because they often are premature.
- Mother's health - Babies of mothers who are exposed to illicit drugs, alcohol and cigarettes are more likely to have low birthweight. Mothers of lower socioeconomic status are also more likely to have poorer pregnancy nutrition, inadequate prenatal care, and pregnancy complications — all factors that can contribute to low birthweight.
Why is low birthweight a concern?
If your baby has a low birthweight, she may be at increased risk for complications. Her tiny body is not as strong, and she may have a harder time eating, gaining weight and fighting infections. Because she has so little body fat, she may have a hard time staying warm in normal temperatures.
Because many babies with low birthweight are also premature, it is can be difficult to separate the problems due to the prematurity from the problems of just being so tiny. In general, the lower a baby's birthweight, the greater the risks for complications. The following are some of the common problems of low birthweight babies:
- low oxygen levels at birth
- inability to maintain body temperature
- difficulty feeding and gaining weight
- breathing problems, such as respiratory distress syndrome (a respiratory disease of prematurity caused by immature lungs)
- neurologic problems, such as intraventricular hemorrhage (bleeding inside the brain)
- gastrointestinal problems such as necrotizing enterocolitis (a serious disease of the intestine common in premature babies)
- sudden infant death syndrome
Nearly all low birthweight babies need specialized care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) until they gain weight and are well enough to go home. Fortunately, there is a 95 percent chance of survival for babies weighing between 3 pounds, 5 ounces and 5 pounds, 8 ounces.
Can low birthweight be prevented?
Prevention of preterm births is one of the best ways to prevent babies born with low birthweight. Prenatal care is a key factor in preventing preterm births and low birthweight babies.
- At prenatal visits, the health of both mother and fetus can be checked.
- Because maternal nutrition and weight gain are linked with fetal weight gain and birthweight, eating a healthy diet and gaining the proper amount of weight in pregnancy are essential.
- Mothers should avoid alcohol, cigarettes and illicit drugs, which can contribute to poor fetal growth, among other complications.