Birth defects and congenital anomalies
Some birth defects can be diagnosed before birth through ultrasound, amniocentesis or chronic villus sampling (CVS). Most women have blood tests to screen for their risk of having a baby with a specific birth defect, such as Down syndrome and spina bifida. While it does not usually lead to a cure for the baby's birth defect, prenatal diagnosis can prepare the parents emotionally and help them prepare for a child with a birth defect.
In other cases a birth defect is diagnosed after birth through physical examination or a blood test that screens for several disorders in newborns.